Faceted Id/entity:
Managing representation in a digital world

danah boyd
MIT Media Lab
Master's Thesis

Thesis document [pdf]
- Abstract
- Introduction
- Negotiating Identity in Social Interactions
- Reconsidering Social Interaction for the Digital Realm
- Self-Awareness in Social Interactions
- Digital Identity Management
- Example Applications
- Social Network Fragments: A Self-Awareness Application
- SecureId: An Identity Management Application
- Conclusion
- Bibliography

Related Projects
- Social Network Fragments
- SecureId

About the author



Anonymous. 2002, June 26. (Private email conversation; name withheld for privacy reasons.)

Aronson, Elliot. 1995. The Social Animal. New York: WH Freeman.

Behr, Mary. 2002, July 26. "All eyes are on you." Popular Science.

Bell, Genevieve. 2001. (Personal communications.)

Bos, Nathan D.; Judy S. Olson; Darren Gergle; Gary M. Olson; ZachWright. 2002. "Effects of four computer-mediated channels on trust development." Proceedings of CHI 2002. New York: ACM Press.

boyd, danah. 2001. "Sexing the Internet: Reflections on the role of identification in online communities." Sexualities, Medias and Technologies Conference (University of Surrey, June 21-22).

boyd, danah; Hyun-Yeul Lee; Daniel Ramage; Judith Donath. 2002. "Developing Legible Visualizations for Online Social Spaces" danah boyd, Hyun-Yeul Lee." Proceedings of the Hawai'i International Conference on System Sciences-35 (Persistent Conversations Track; Big Island, HI; January 7-10). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Brin, David. 1998. The Transparent Society. New York: Addison-Wesley.

Burt, Ronald. 1993. "The Social Structure of Competition." Explorations in Economic Sociology (Richard Swedberg, ed.), 65-103. New York: Sage.

Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. London: Routledge.

Cha, Ariana Eunjung. 2001, November 19. "Online Companies Draw Fire For Removing 'Offensive' Postings." Washington Post.

Chiou, Ta-gang. 2000. "Virtual Fashion: Tracking and analyzing cultural dispersion on the World-Wide Web." Cambridge, MA: MIT Media Lab Master's Thesis.

Davis, Fred. 1992. Fashion, Culture and Identity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

de Moor, Des (Dirk). 1997, May 19. "Codes and Symbols." the deviant's dictionary.

Descartes, René. 1641. "Meditations on the First Philosophy." Which the Existence of God, and the Real Distinction of Mind and Body, are Demonstrated (John Veitch, trans. 1901).

Dey, Anind K. 2000, December. "Providing Architectural Support for Building Context-Aware Applications." Atlanta, GA: Georgia Institute of Technology Ph.D. Thesis.

Dibbell, Julian. 1993, December 23. "A Rape in Cyberspace or How an Evil Clown, a Haitian Trickster Spirit, Two Wizards, and a Cast of Dozens Turned a Database into a Society." The Village Voice.

Donath, Judith. 1999. "Identity and deception in the virtual community." Communities in Cyberspace (Marc Smith & Peter Kollock, eds). London: Routledge.

Donath, Judith. 1995. "Visual Who." Proceedings of ACM Multimedia '95 (San Francisco, CA, November 5-9). New York: ACM Press.

EPIC: Electronic Privacy Information Center. 1994. http://www.epic.org

Erickson, Thomas; David N. Smith; Wendy A. Kellogg; Mark Laff; John T. Richards; Erin Bradner. 1999. "Socially Translucent Systems: Social Proxies, Persistent Conversation, and the Design of 'Babble.'" Human Factors in Computing Systems: The Proceedings of CHI '99. New York: ACM Press.

Federal Trade Commission. 2000, June. "Online Profiling: A Report to Congress."

Foucault, Michel. 1995/1975. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (Alan Sheridan, trans.). New York: Vintage.

Freud, Sigmund. 1974/1923. "The Ego and the Id." The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud (SE), vol. XIX (James Strachey, et al., eds.) London: Hogart Press & The Institute of Psycho-Analysis.

Garfinkel, Simson. 2000. Database Nation: The Death of Privacy in the 21st Century. Cambridge, MA: O'Reilly & Associates.

Garton, Laura; Caroline Haythornthwait; Barry Wellman. 1999. "Studying Online Social Networks." Doing Internet Research (Steve Jones, ed.), 75-105. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Gelder, Ken and Sarah Thornton. 1997. The Subcultures Reader. London: Routledge.

Giddens, Anthony. 1991. Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Cambridge: Polity.

Goffman, Erving. 1956. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Doubleday.

Google. 2001, December 15. "20 Year Usenet Archive Now Available."

Granovetter, Mark. 1973. "The Strength of Weak Ties." American Journal of Sociology 78: 1360-1380.

Green, Nicola; Hazel Lachoee; Nina Wakeford. 2001. "Rethinking Queer Communications: Mobile Phones and beyond." Sexualities, Medias and Technologies Conference (University of Surrey, June 21-22).

Hall, Stuart. 1996. "The Meaning of New Times." Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies (David Morley & Kuan-Hsing Chen, eds.). New York: Routledge

Harrison, Steve; Paul Dourish. 1996. "Re-Place-ing Space: The Roles of Place and Space in Collaborative Systems." Proceedings of ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work CSCW'96 (Boston, Massachusetts), 67-76. New York: ACM.

Harvey, David. 1990. The Condition of Postmodernity. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

Hauben, Ronda. 2002, January. "Commodifying Usenet and the Usenet Archive or Continuing the Online Cooperative Usenet Culture." Science Studies 15:1, 61-68.

Hebdige, Dick. 1991/1979. Subculture, the meaning of style. London: Routledge.

Isbell, Charles; Michael Kearns; Dave Kormann; Satinder Singh; Peter Stone. 2000. "Cobot in LambdaMOO: A Social Statistics Agent." Proceedings of the Seventeenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (Austin Texas; July 30-August 2).

Joinson, Adam. 1998. "Causes and Implications of Disinhibited Behavior on the Internet." Psychology and the Internet: Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and Transpersonal Implications (Jayne Gackenbach, ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Kilduff, Martin. 1992. "The friendship network as a decision-making resource: Dispositional moderators of social influences on organizational choice." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 62: 168-80.

Killworth, Peter; Eugene Johnsen; H Russell Bernard; Gene Ann Shelley; Christopher McCarthy. 1990. "Estimating the Size of Personal Networks." Social Networks 12:289-312.

Krackhardt, David. 1999. "The Ties That Torture: Simmelian Tie Analysis in Organizations." Research in the Sociology of Organizations 16:183-210.

Lacan, Jacques. 1980/1968. "The language of the self: The function of language in psychoanalysis." Metaphors We Live By (George Lakoff & Mark Johnson, eds.; A. Wilden, trans.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lacan, Jacquires. 1977/1966. "The mirror stage as formative of the function of the I." Écrits: A selection (Alan Sheridan, trans.). New York: W.W. Norton.

Large Scale Design GISP. 1998. "Memex and Beyond." http://www.lsd.brown.edu/design/ & http://www.buddygraph.com/projects/buddygraph-v2000/

Le Bon, Gustave. 1952/1895. The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind. London: Ernest Benn.

Lebo, Harlan. 2001, November. "UCLA Internet Report 2001: Surveying the Digital Future, Year Two." Los Angeles: UCLA Center for Communication Policy.

Lee, Jennifer 8. 2002, July 25. "Net Users Try to Elude the Google Grasp." The New York Times.

Lessig, Lawrence. 1999. Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace. New York: Basic Books.

Marlow, Cameron. 2001. "Blogdex."

McPherson, Miller; Lynn Smith-Lovin; James Cook. 2001. "Birds of a Feather: Homophily in Social Networks." Annual Review of Sociology 27: 415-444.

Mead, George Herbert. 1934. Mind, Self, and Society (C.W. Morris, ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago.

Milgram, Stanley. 1967. "The Small-World Problem." Psychology Today 1:62-67.

Milgram, Stanley. 1974. Obedience to authority. New York: Harper & Row.

Minsky, Marvin. 1985. The Society of Mind. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Mitchell, William. 1995. City of Bits: Space, Place, and the Infobahn. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Moustakas, Clarke. 1967. Creativity and conformity. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand.

Negroponte, Nicholas. 1995. Being Digital. New York: Vintage Books.

Nguyen, David H.; Elizabeth D. Mynatt. 2002, June. "Privacy Mirrors: Understanding and Shaping Socio-technical Ubiquitous Computing Systems." Atlanta, GA: Georgia Institute of Technology Technical Report (GIT-GVU-02-16).

O'Brien, Jodi. 1999. "Writing in the body: Gender (re)production in online interaction." Communities in Cyberspace (Marc Smith & Peter Kollock, eds.). London: Routledge.

PEW Foundation. 2001. "Daily Internet Activities." The Pew Internet and American Life Project.

Pink Zone. 2002. "Pride Symbols Guide." sexuality.org: society for human sexuality.

Rank, Otto. 1932. Will therapy and truth and reality. New York: A. A. Knopf.

Reid, Elizabeth M. 1998. "The Self and the Internet: Variations on the 'Illusion' of One Self." Psychology and the Internet: Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and Transpersonal Implications (Jayne Gackenbach, ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Rice, Ronald. 1994. "Network analysis and computer-mediated communication systems." Advances in social network analysis: Research in the social and behavioral sciences (Stanley Wasserman & Joseph Galaskiewicz, eds.), 167-203. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Rocco, Elena; Tom A. Finholt; Erik C. Hofer; Jim D. Herbsleb. 2000. "Designing as if Trust Mattered." Ann Arbor: University of Michigan CREW Technical Report.

Rosen, Jeffrey. 2000. The Unwanted Gaze: The Destruction of Privacy in America. New York: Vintage.

Sack, Warren. 2000. "Discourse Diagrams: Interface Design for Very Large Scale Conversations." Proceedings of the Hawai'i International Conference on System Sciences-33 (Persistent Conversations Track; Maui, HI; January). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Saville-Troike, Muriel. 1982. The ethnograhy of communication. An introduction. Baltimore, Maryland: University Park Press.

Scheeres, Julia. 2002, July 11. "Dear Member: You've Been Deleted." Wired News.

Schoeneman, Deborah. 2001, January 15. "Don't Be Shy, Ladies - Google Him! Check Out His Search Engine First." New York Observer.

Shneiderman, Benjamin. 1987. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Simpson, Rosemary. 1995. "Memex and Beyond."

Simmel, Georg. 1971. On Individuality and Social Forms. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Smith, Adam. 1976/1790. The Theory of Moral Sentiments (D.D. Raphael & A.L. Macfie, eds.). Oxford: Claredon Press.

Smith, Marc. 2001. "Netscan: A tool for measuring and mapping social cyberspaces."

Smith, Marc; Andrew Fiore. 2001. "Visualization Components for Persistent Conversations." ACM Proceedings of SIG CHI 2001 (Seattle, WA; March 31-April 5), 136-143. New York: ACM Press.

Snyder, Marc. 1974. "Self-Monitoring of Expressive Behavior." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 30:526-537.

Sproull, Lee; Sara Kiesler. 1991. Connections: New ways of working in the networked organization. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Stone, Allucquere Rosanne. 1998. The War of Desire and Technology at the Close of the Mechanical Age. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Tufte, E. 1990. Envisioning Information. Chesire, CT: Graphics Press.

Turkle, Sherry. 1995. Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Viégas, Fernanda. 1997. "Collections: Adapting the Display of Personal Objects for Different Audiences." Cambridge, MA: MIT Media Lab Master's Thesis.

Viégas, Fernanda. 1999. "ChatCircles."

Viégas, Fernanda. 2001. "Post History."

Wellman, Barry; Janet Salaff; Dimintrina Dimitrova; Laura Garton; Milena Gulia; Caroline Haythornthwaite. 1996, February. "Computer Networks as Social Networks: Virtual Community, Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Telework." Annual Review of Sociology 22: 213-38.

Wellman, Barry; Keith Hampton. 1999. "Living Networked in a Wired World." Contemporary Sociology 28(6), 648-654.

Whittaker, Steven; Loren Terveen; Will Hill; Lynn Cherny. 1998. "The dynamics of mass communication," The Proceedings of CSCW '98.

Xiong, Rebecca; Eric Brittain. 1999. "LiveWeb: Visualizing Live User Activities on the Web." Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1999 (Sketch; Los Angeles; August 8-13). New York: ACM Press.

Zahavi, Amotz. 1997. The handicap principle: A missing piece of Darwin's puzzle. New York: Oxford University Press.